Earthquakes are vibrations or aftershocks of the earth’s surface caused by the slow or sudden movement of a rock mass underground. This happens because the earth’s crust is always in motion. Being made up of many blocks, or tectonic plates, that are constantly moving it is possible for a collision to occur in the presence of fractures in the crust known as faults.
The enormous elastic energy accumulated during movement and collision is released, propagating in all directions in the form of seismic waves, giving rise to the earthquake.
What is the cause of the devastating force of earthquakes? Rocks suddenly crack due to the continuous compression of the plates and the constant accumulation of tension. The rock body fractures when the breaking load is reached and releases a high amount of elastic energy.
In Italy, seismic events are very frequent and often disastrous, involving serious damage and victims. These earthquakes may be accompanied by other phenomena considered in the seismic risk assessment such as liquefaction and subsidence of the ground, floods and fires.
Despite the frequency and recurrence of earthquakes in certain areas of the world, defined as seismic zones, it is not yet possible to predict them accurately. For this reason, it is essential to carry out an accurate assessment of seismic risk and vulnerability, considering both the protection of human life – through the safety levels required by the current Technical Standards for Construction NTC 2018 – and the possible economic losses.
In seismic retrofit projects we use devices that allow earthquake-induced distortions to pass through the building, cushioning the structure’s oscillations and stabilizing it. In addition, we use effective anti-seismic construction techniques that take into account the hazard (probability of an earthquake occurring), vulnerability (evaluation of the consequences of the earthquake) and exposure (socio-economic evaluation of the consequences).
The importance and imperative nature of the vulnerability analysis with consequent structural adjustment of buildings and corporate structures have been further highlighted with the introduction of the SISMABONUS: a deduction of up to 80% for interventions relating to the adoption of anti-seismic measures and for the expenses incurred for anti-seismic works carried out on the structural parts of the buildings, for a total expenditure not exceeding €96,000 per property unit each year.
The Sisma Bonus provides for deductions from Irpef or Ires tax, from 50 to 110% of the expenses incurred from 1 January 2017 to carry out anti-seismic interventions regarding renovation works of buildings predisposed to seismic adaptation present in seismic zones 1, 2 and 3.
The Sisma Bonus is an economic incentive granted by the Italian State to deal with the problem of seismic vulnerability and make its buildings more resistant and prepared for a possible seismic risk.
To take advantage of the tax concessions, the "seismic adaptation", "seismic improvement" or "anti-seismic renovations" that must be carried out are the following:
- Demolition and reconstruction
- Improvement interventions
- Repair interventions
The companies that can benefit from the SismaBonus are:
- Individuals, including artists and professions;
- Taxpayers with business income;
- Associations between professionals;
- Public and private entities that do not carry out commercial activities;
- IACP and entities with the same purposes;
- Shared ownership housing cooperatives.